Global Warning

global“If humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that CO2 will need to be reduced from its current levels of 398 ppm to at most 350 ppm…”Dr. James Hansen

Since Dr. James Hansen, a leading climatologist, warned in 2008 that we need to reduce the amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere to 350 parts-per-million (ppm) in order to preserve life on Earth, little has been done to get us there.

It’s getting late. If we’re going to preserve a livable Earth we, the global grassroots, must do more than mitigate global warming.
We must reverse it.

But how?

Hint number one: not by politely asking out-of-control corporations and politicians to please stop destroying the planet.

Hint number two: not by pinning our hopes for survival and climate stability on hi-tech, unproven and dangerous, “solutions” such as genetic engineering, geoengineering, or carbon capture and sequestration for coal plants.

Hint number three: not by naively believing that soon (or soon enough) ordinary consumers all over the planet will spontaneously abandon their cars, air travel, air conditioning, central heating, and fossil fuel-based diets and lifestyles just in time to prevent atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases from moving past the tipping point of 450 ppm or more of CO2 to the catastrophic point of no return.

We can reverse climate change by sequestering several hundred billion tons of excess CO2 using the “tools” we already have at hand: regenerative, organic farming, ranching and land use.

And we can make this world-changing transition by mobilizing a vast green corps of farmers, ranchers, gardeners, consumers, climate activists and conservationists to begin the monumental task of moving the Carbon Behemoth safely back underground.

Ronnie Cummins
http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_30945.cfm

 

http://www.motherjones.com/mixed-media/2014/10/watching-porcupine-taste-pumpkin-why-world-going-be-okay-today

 

 

Melon

watermelon
Ulisse Aldrovandi (11 September 1522 – 4 May 1605)

 

Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й

readerA Man seated reading at a Table in a Lofty Room
Rembrandt or follower,  about 1628 – 30

 

One of the first conditions of happiness is that the link between Man and Nature shall not be broken

Count Lev Nikolayevitch Tolstoy (9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November [O.S. 7 November] 1910]

 

 

Illuminated

gothic sketchbookSpätgotisches Musterbuch des Stephan Schriber – 1494

 

A Logical Step

bird sowerbyJames Sowerby (1757 – 1822)
A Bird with Wings Spread

Ithaca, N.Y.
—It may not kill them outright, but low-level PCB contamination is disrupting the way some birds sing their songs. So conclude the authors of a seven-year Cornell University study published today in the science journal PLOS ONE.

Before the chemicals were banned in the United States in 1979, polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, were widely used in the manufacture of electrical devices because they can withstand extremely high temperatures.

“PCBs are changing behavior in subtle but important ways that we’re only beginning to recognize,” says lead author Sara DeLeon. “The Black-capped Chickadees and Song Sparrows we studied ingest PCBs when they eat contaminated insects. The chemicals appear to mimic hormones and interfere with development in the part of the bird’s brain that governs song and song structure.”

Key among the findings is that song disruption is tied to specific types of PCBs—there are 209 variations, differentiated by the positioning and number of chlorine atoms. DeLeon tested 41 of these variations to isolate their effects.

DeLeon chose five study sites in New York State, including two along the Hudson River that were heavily polluted by PCBs dumped illegally from 1947 to 1977. The other sites were not known to have PCB contamination and tests at an Adirondack Mountains site eliminated mercury as a factor in song changes. At each site she collected and tested blood samples from males of the two bird species, recorded their songs over several field seasons, and analyzed those songs.

“The songs of Black-capped Chickadees and Song Sparrows are very well studied,” DeLeon says. “For example, we know that it’s normal for there to be very, very little variation in the way all Black-capped Chickadees deliver their fee-bee song and the interval between the two notes.
We found the greatest variation among birds in areas with higher levels of certain types of PCBs—their songs just were not coming out right. Since dominant males produce the most consistent songs, this variation could have important biological consequences.”

“Effects of PCBs are extremely complicated,” says co-author André Dhondt, director of Bird Population Studies at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. “What this demonstrates is that most previous PCB studies may not give us the whole picture because they did not look at the specific type of PCB involved but just measured overall levels.”
It took about three years just to complete the chemical analyses.

The next logical step, Dhondt notes, would be to use this method to study low-level PCB effects elsewhere to learn how the pollutants are being spread through ecosystems and the effects they could be having.

 

Other co-authors include research associate Ralph S. Hames; assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology André Kessler; and Timothy DeVoogd, professor of psychology, all from Cornell.

 

http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2013/09/even-low-level-pcbs-change-bird-songs

This study was funded by: New York Sea Grant; Cornell University Biogeochemistry and Environmental Biocomplexity Small Grant; Cornell Travel Grant; Mellon Grant; Kieckhefer-Adirondack Grant; State University of New York Fellowship;  SLOAN Fellowship; and a Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship.

A Blenheim Spaniel

ww blenheim spanielWilliam Webb (1775 – 1845)

Garden

joseph deckerJoseph Decker (1853 – 1924)

 

 

I

 

You are clear
O rose, cut in rock,
hard as the descent of hail.

 

I could scrape the colour
from the petals
like spilt dye from a rock.

 

If I could break you
I could break a tree.

 

If I could stir
I could break a tree—
I could break you.

 


II

 

O wind, rend open the heat,
cut apart the heat,
rend it to tatters.

 

Fruit cannot drop
through this thick air—
fruit cannot fall into heat
that presses up and blunts
the points of pears
and rounds the grapes.

 

Cut the heat—
plough through it,
turning it on either side
of your path.


H.D.
 (1886-1961)

An Attempt

herbst lobster

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst (1743-1807) was a German naturalist and entomologist, and a theologian and chaplain for the Prussian army.

Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse’ (An attempt at The Natural History of Crabs and Lobsters)
was possibly the first comprehensive work on the crustaceans and definitely included descriptions and illustrations of previously unknown species.
It was released in instalments between about 1782 and the mid-1790s. There were three volumes of text and an atlas consisting of more than sixty hand-coloured engravings. Various editions were issued, some coloured, some not, and some coloured later.

It is still regarded as a primary source in the field.

Perseus

PereusPiero di Cosimo (1462 – 1522)

Inaudible Music, Inexplicable Matter

The central region of a rich galaxy cluster about 250 million light years from Earth.


Author: Dr. Tony Phillips
July 24, 2014:
  The Universe is a big place, full of unknowns.  Astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory have just catalogued a new one.

Together with a team of more than a half-dozen colleagues, Esra Bulbul, of the Harvard Center for Astrophysics, has been using Chandra to explore the Perseus Cluster, a swarm of galaxies approximately 250 million light years from Earth.   Imagine a cloud of gas in which each atom is a whole galaxy—that’s a bit what the Perseus cluster is like.  It is one of the most massive known objects in the Universe.
The cluster itself is immersed in an enormous  ‘atmosphere’  of superheated plasma—and it is there that the mystery resides

“A line appeared at 3.56 keV (kilo-electron volts) which does not correspond to any known atomic transition. It was a great surprise.”
The spectral line appears not to come from any known type of matter, which shifts suspicion to the unknown: dark matter.
The menagerie of dark matter candidates that might produce this kind of line include axions, sterile neutrinos, and “moduli dark matter” that may result from the curling up of extra dimensions in string theory.

“I couldn’t believe my eyes,” says   “What we found, at first glance, could not be explained by known physics.”

Solving the mystery could require a whole new observatory.  In 2015, the Japanese space agency is planning to launch an advanced X-ray telescope called “Astro-H.” It has a new type of X-ray detector, developed collaboratively by NASA and University of Wisconsin scientists, which will be able to measure the mystery line with more precision than currently possible.

“Maybe then,” says Bulbul, “we’ll get to the bottom of this.”

science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2014/24jul_perseuscluster/

 

Perseus galaxy cluster’s Cosmic B Flat

In 2003 a team of astronomers led by Dr. Andrew Fabian at Cambridge University discovered one of the deepest notes ever detected, a B.
No human will actually hear the note, because its time period between oscillations is 9.6 million years, which is 57 octaves below the keys in the middle of a piano.

 

see also:

Variations on an Ascending Scale
Study of Clouds
Trees Cry Out

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